, as it is used on this site, refers to the appearance or creation of matter from some undetermined source.


Materializations might consist of shadowy or transparent forms or as solid figures. In the “Bindelof” sittings the boys saw shadows pass over their phosphorescent watch dials, felt “hands” touching them, patting their heads, and in one instance, a phantom finger penetrating a cheek. 


There are also well-documented cases of phantom hands or limbs materializing and interacting with sitters by, for instance, shaking hands or presenting flowers to them. In the most mind-boggling instances, there have been materializations of whole figures that seem like living persons; they breathe, move, converse with witnesses, play instruments –and then dissolve.


Prof. Charles Richet, a Nobel winner in physiology, carried out extensive controlled experiments with “materializing mediums” in strictly controlled conditions in the early 1900s.  One of them was Marthe Beraud, who used the name “Eva C.”

Richet wrote that he often saw complete faces, hands, or fingers with all the appearances and “biological properties of a living organ.” He observed “living” faces and felt a skull under thick hair.  (He was a physiologist remember.)

In many cases he saw the forms develop from the beginning. But he noted that sometimes he’d seen a hand or face appear flat and then become three-dimensional, either completely or partially as he looked.


At many séances solid objects have appeared, sometimes having significance to one of the sitters.  These are called apports.  

Apports have also appeared outside the séance room.  My mentor, the psychologist/parapsychologist Prof. Stanley Krippner has recently reported on a Brazilian gentleman, Amir Amiden, around whom apports frequently appear. They are most often stones; polished stones, gem stones or other unusual stones.  They have appeared outdoors and inside rooms.  Prof. Krippner has seen them appear near the ceiling of a room and fall.  

Many RSPK outbreaks involve stones falling from near a room’s ceiling or from the sky, outdoors.  In the Bindelof book there are two incidents, one in a mausoleum when the boys should not have been in there, and later when Gil Roller as an adult, was assisting with an impromptu séance and became annoyed with the sitters. Stones fell from the ceiling onto the table. 

Watch video interview on Spirit Materialization with Leslie Kean

For more information on materialization see:
| Helen Duncan | | D.D. Home | | Katie King | | Franek Kluski |

Other topics to explore “inside the séance room”
ApparitionsDirect VoiceEctoplasmLevitationLights, Odors, etc.Materialization
Paranormal soundsTable tilting